Language study of Text A, Unit 4, Book 4 1. in decline/on the decline (l.2)：losing strength; declining He is still one of the world’s most popular tennis players, but his fame is in decline. a civilization in decline/on the decline 衰落的文明 ant. On the rise decline the invitation: turn down Be inclined to : be willing to, tend to under repair/ way/ discussion 2. enduring impression/fame (l.5) 3. characteristic: n. special mark or quality A characteristic of the camel is its ability to live for a long time without water. Good planning is one of the characteristics of a successful business. Genes determine the characteristics of every living thing. Characterize v. Courtesy characterizes most British men. 4. dynamism, dynamic (l.5) a man/place of dynamism a dynamic period in history 5. aggressive, aggressiveness (l.6) aggressive personality 积极进取 aggressive disposition 性情偏激 aggressive nation aggressive war Cf. aggression An aggression upon sb’s rights 6. paralyze(l.8): vt. make ineffective; make (sb.) lose the ability to move part or all of the body She was paralyzed from the waist down. Be paralyzed with fear/shock The general strike paralyzed industry/traffic. The civil war has paralyzed the economy of that country. 7. incapable of (l.8) He is incapable of telling a lie. The house is incapable of repair. 8. inevitably (l.11): unavoidably 9. precedent: n. earlier happening, decision, etc. taken as an example or rule for what comes later follow historical precedent break a precedent 打破常规 without precedent 空前的 have no precedent to go by create/set a precedent for 为…开先例 10. fuse with (l.18) The three small parties fused into a new party.
17. 18. 19.
The lights have fused. pluralism, plural (l.25) plural society/culture mentality (l.27) peasant mentality 意识 criminal mentality 心理 multiracial, multicultural society (l.31) simultaneously (l.33) simultaneous translation 同声翻译 simultaneous demonstrations in London and New York simultaneous applause facility (l.37): skillfulness with great facility=skillfully show facility 表现出才能 dominant American culture (l.38) dominant nature/personality 支配他人的 dominant idea/notion Cancer is one of the dominant diseases in the world. inhabitants (l.41): residents, dwellers Asian-Confucian group loyalty (l.66) constructive (l.76): adj. having a useful purpose; helpful, positive constrictive suggestions/talk After their meeting, both sides described the talks as frank, friendly and constructive. merge with (l.85) The two companies will be merged/will merge. Cf, blend: 强调成分的混合 blend oil and vinegar to make a salad dressing adjust the concept of time (l.90) conception: idea about what sth. is like or understanding of sth.; process in which sb. forms a plan or idea Their conception of love seems to be very different from our own. I had no conception of the results of the experiment. Conception of consumption E.g. concept (personal notion) What is your concept of happiness? offend (l.95) be offended for his act/at his words 生气 He was offended that we didn’t agree with him. offend (against) the law/rules/customs 违反 offend the ear/the eye 刺耳/眼 from the perspective of (l.102) From the perspective of women, the article is well worth reading. The novel Harry Potter is written from the perspective of a child in the … sense: as far as … is concerned
28. 29. 30.
In the environmental sense, your plan to build a chemical factory is a disaster, whatever the economic benefits may seem to be. in political / economic/geographical sense politically/economically/geographically speaking submerge (l.102) = immerse a house submerged by flood water He was submerged by/in paper work. ethnic (l.102) ethnic groups/conflicts harmonious (l.103) harmonious atmosphere live in harmony competing cultures (l.104) a combination of (l.108) destiny (l.113) Destiny is sometimes cruel. His destiny is shaped by … I don’t believe you can escape your destiny. the destiny of the government You can’t fight against Destiny. Destined: Be destined to fail/failure It was destined that we should meet one day. She wanted to be an artist, but destiny decreed that she should become a doctor. Our destiny offers not the cup of despair, but the chalice of opportunity. Cf. doom All the empires are doomed His plot is doomed
Book4 Unit4 Text A useful expressions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 a nation in decline rise and fall the most enduring impression great powers be incapable of any improvement follow historical precedent Give way to other empires I have a sense that fuse/merge with Include but not limited to cultural pluralism historically speaking anticipate the general trend a civilization of unprecedented openness and pluralism absolutely new high-technology parks the Pacific Rim civilization extended family potential of development a conception of time a stagnant/paralyzed society show up in the party work toward a common aim a(n) main/essential characteristic diverse races and cultures a harmonious cooperation a living standard from the perspective of social mobility be defined in advance 衰落的国家 兴衰 最持久的印象 列强 缺乏改善的可能性 重蹈历史的覆辙 让位于其它帝国 我有一种感觉 与。。融合 。 包括但不限于 文化多元化 从历史的角度看 预示了普遍趋势 史无前例的开放和多元文化 崭新的文明 高科技园 环太*洋文化 大家族 发展的潜力 时间观念 停滞不前的社会 在晚会上露面 朝着共同的目标努力 主要/关键特征 不同种族和文化 融洽的合作 生活水准 从…的角度 社会流动性 注定
Book4 Unit4 Text B useful expressions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 a blending of different ways of life cheer and applaud his performance converse with snap pictures blurring of cultural styles to a greater extent than anyone can imagine educational and cultural elite cling to the notion what of be impressed with adoption of western ways the notion is derived from the founding fathers prior to the war A complex world The most publicized novelist small-screen view cause so much misery and depression spoil our noble achievements bring order to the new world work ethic in a cruel and inhuman manner establishment of a great industrial society be voiced in everyday life a distinguished university a storeroom of western civilization 不同生活方式的融合 为他的表演欢呼鼓掌 交谈 拍快照 文化风格模糊化 远远超出人们的想象 教育和文化精英 坚守固有的观念 怎么样 被…深深打动 采用西方方式 概念源自于 开国元勋 战前 错综复杂的世界 知名度最高的小说家 狭隘的观点 带来深重的苦难和绝望 玷污我们最辉煌的成就 给新世界带来秩序 职业道德 以残酷和非人道的方式 一个伟大的工业社会的建立 在日常生活中被宣扬 名校 西方文明的贮藏室